K. Atsonios, A. Nikolopoulos, S. Karellas, N. Nikolopoulos, P. Grammelis, E. Kakaras. ‘Numerical investigation of the grid spatial resolution and the anisotropic character of EMMS in CFB multiphase flow’, Chemical Engineering Science, 66 (17), 2011,

Abstract: During the last years, considerable efforts have been made for the optimization of numerical methods simulating the operation of the Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors (CFBC), which imply both the accuracy increase and the computational cost decrease. A foremost goal is the efficient description of its operation under isothermal conditions and the in-depth understanding of the governing complex multiphase flow mechanisms. Grid construction and the calculation of the drag force experienced by the inert material in the two-phase flow are two important parameters for the optimization of the numerical approaches in the case of CFB simulation. The aim of the present investigation is to investigate both the effect of grid density distribution on simulation results and the validity of an anisotropic approach for the drag force calculation through an Energy Minimization Multi-Scale (EMMS) scheme. Grid density distribution is found to affect the numerical accuracy and the real time of simulations. Uniform grid density distribution is found to be the most efficient choice in terms of balance between computational cost and numerical accuracy. On the other hand, EMMS scheme improves the efficiency of detecting complex particle structures (clusters) without an explicit modeling of these spatio-temporal formations. Moreover, applying EMMS scheme only for calculation of the z-component of drag force yielded better numerical results compared to a constant interphase momentum exchange coefficient for all the three directions

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